The use of steroids, especially among Olympic weightlifters, continues to be a hot and controversial topic to many. It’s because of this that I sought to find out how do Olympic weightlifters use steroids? After in-depth and extensive research on the subject of steroid use among Olympic weightlifters, what comes out quite clearly is that Olympic weightlifters take steroids to build muscles, become stronger and more powerful, and enhance their performance, which, in the medical sphere, is an abuse to the drugs.
Weightlifters, unlike patients being treated for different medical conditions, take more and more steroids to improve their bodily appearance and increase their athletic performance. According to WebMD, this is a serious abuse of the synthetic hormones. Why do you think weightlifters have such huge bodies? Is it natural for them to be so bulky-bodied? Well, that is why this subject continues to mind-boggle many people.
Please remember, in order to keep and maintain your good health, definitely you should stay far away from steroid usage.
While there are a good number of Olympic weightlifters who have acquired strong muscles and maintained a high level of performance through natural weightlifting and taking balanced diets, there are others who continue to rely on steroids to build muscles and boost their performance. Naturally, weightlifting is the best way to build stronger muscles.
Gyms and weights are good friends to Olympic weightlifters, but some want something more than just lifting weights. They turn to steroids to build larger masses of muscles and to enhance their output. Without a doubt, the world we live in today does not understand what it means to be patient. Many people want quick fixes.
A good example is Olympic weightlifters who use steroids. They want to build huge bodies within a very short time. Indeed, steroids make this largely possible. But, is it legal? Is it worth it? According to the National Institute of Drug Abuse (2019), medical practitioners don’t prescribe steroids for performance enhancement and muscle building.
Certainly, the question of how Olympic weightlifters use steroids is worthy of a deeper comprehension, considering that the trend is relentlessly becoming part of contemporary society.
What Are Steroids?
Have you ever wondered why bodybuilders and weightlifters look so huge? Someone had an average body size, but within a very short time, his body expands to levels that you find difficult to fathom. Synthetic substances intended to function like the male sex hormone (testosterone) are behind this rapid body size shift.
In other words, they are called steroids. Healthcare practitioners prescribe steroids to treat various diseases and conditions that cause muscle loss like cancer and HIV/AIDS. Doctors can also recommend the consumption of steroids to people with low levels of testosterone.
Moreover, they are used to address hormonal issues in the body like delayed puberty. If they are used to address these medically approved conditions, they are accepted, and doctors can prescribe them to patients who need them to get well. However, if they are used to build muscles and/or to enhance one’s physical appearance, this is tantamount to abuse or misuse of the same.
Unless a doctor prescribes one to take these synthesized chemicals, they are illegal. Most Olympic weightlifters use steroids not to treat a prescribed medical issue, but to enhance their physical performance as well as ensuring that their muscles expand in mass.
Popularly known as anabolic steroids, these human-made hormones work by producing an anabolic effect, which is responsible for the growth of muscles. Additionally, they function by promoting the manifestation of male characteristics, commonly referred to as the androgenic effect.
This is why many Olympic weightlifters fall into the trap of using steroids. The capacity to increase their performance significantly and to build stronger muscles plays a leading role in the ever-increasing usage of steroids among athletes. There are different kinds of steroids that Olympic weightlifters use today.
The History of Steroid Use
Steroid use is not a new phenomenon. It’s decades old. According to the National Institute of Drug Abuse (2019), during the Second World War, a synthetic form of the male hormone (testosterone) was found to have the ability to give more strength to weak soldiers for them to keep fighting on. Fundamentally, the hormone helped improve the weight and performance of the weak soldiers.
The war ended in 1945, but that was not the end of steroids use. It was now the turn of athletes to begin using steroids as a way of boosting their performance. In 1956, the National Institute of Drug Abuse (2019) reported that during the Olympics, weightlifters from the Soviet Union did outstandingly well and reached very high levels of performance. It was later discovered that they had used steroids to enhance their performance.
This was the beginning of the popularity of steroid use among Olympic athletes and other professionals in different sports. The National Institute of Drug Abuse (2019) points out that it was until 1975 that the International Olympic Committee made the use of steroids illegal in Olympics competitions.
Though steroids were considered illegal in the sports world, the sale of the same in the black market continued because people had gotten the idea that they were a viable option for the enhancement of performance. It was until 1988 that the first major legal statute regarding steroid use was put in place in the Anti-Drug Abuse Act. This meant that there was a tougher punishment for the sale and possession of steroids.
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Despite the enforcement of laws against the sale and possession of steroids, the distribution and sale of these synthetic hormones have continued to increase. Athletes and non-athletes are part of the reason why steroids are still prevalent today. Olympic weightlifters are among those who are using steroids at a large scale; hence, making this is a topic deserving an in-depth discussion.
Why Do Weightlifters Use Steroids?
- Athlete Olympic Weightlifters
We live in a world full of competition. Everybody wants to be the best and at his best. For this reason, Olympic weightlifters take and use steroids to enhance their performance, become more powerful and stronger, as well as building more muscle mass.
Athlete Olympic weightlifters are in constant pressure to perform and be at their best in competitions; hence, forcing them to take steroids to boost their overall output. According to them, the more powerful and stronger they are, the more they can remain competitive and relevant in the weightlifting world. The desire to remain at the peak and apex of the weightlifting realm gives weightlifters the push to go for steroids.
Although the use of steroids in athlete Olympic weightlifting is against the legal and ethics of the sport, you will still find a good number of weightlifters using performance-enhancing drugs. Why is this so? Even when top weightlifters are being stripped off of their Olympic titles because of doping, the trend is still continuing. What does this imply?
Essentially, Olympic weightlifters are willing to take the risk of testing positive for steroids for them to maintain their desired shape and form. Truth be told, lifting Olympic-style weights is not a joke.
It requires a lot of strength and power to make progress in this arena of weightlifting. Most importantly, it does not take a sudden flight to build muscles, power, and strength in Olympic weightlifting. You need to exhibit massive amounts of patience and dedication for you to achieve your desired goals as a weightlifter. This is a big problem for many weightlifters.
They want a quick fix in becoming stronger and powerful and in building strong muscles. Since this is not possible, weightlifters turn to the use of steroids. Yes, steroids enhance one’s performance and build stronger muscles quicker than natural workouts, but this is not a widely accepted route.
- Non-Athletic Weightlifters
Non-athlete weightlifters are also prone to the use of steroids. Why is this so? They want to look bigger and bulkier. Body appearance is an important factor for gym lovers who do Olympic weightlifting. In a day and age where body image accounts for a lot, weightlifting has become a major societal trend. Actually, it’s fashionable for one to show a fine-looking body appearance that society has deemed ideal.
For this reason, weightlifters are adding steroids to their workouts to improve their appearance. Again, masculinity is synonymous to looking strong and powerful. Even for non-athlete weightlifters, they value the idea of looking strong and powerful.
When male weightlifters go to the gym, they want to look masculine, and that is why they will do whatever it takes for them to add strength and power to their masculinity. Steroids happen to be the quickest way of making this possible. Thus, with the increasing amount of pressure on various fronts among weightlifters, steroids consumption has become a common trend.
Steroids That Olympic Weightlifters Take
There are various steroids that weightlifters take to improve their performance, build more muscle mass, and tuning their body appearance to acquire a stronger and masculine shape. Some of the common anabolic steroids are discussed below:
The approved medical use of this synthetic male hormone is the treatment of low red blood cell count. Specifically, people suffering from anemia take Anadrol to boost the production of red blood cells in their bodies. However, weightlifters take advantage of this drug to add power and strength to their bodies. Using the synthetic male hormone, for this reason, is an abuse, and it has the potential of causing serious complications and side effects to those who take it.
Just like other steroids, Oxandrin is used for medical purposes approved by medical practitioners. Concerning the chemical ability of Oxandrin, people who have lost weight as a result of different medical reasons take it to regain a substantial amount of weight. Moreover, it also helps to get rid of bone pain for those suffering from bone loss.
Weightlifters use this drug to increase their strength and power for them to maintain their competitive edge in the sport of Olympic weightlifting. For non-athlete weightlifters, the intake of this steroid is to increase their weight and build stronger muscles. Weightlifters tend taking up to 10 times more than the normal dosage of this drug to increase their capacity to build muscles faster.
Dianabol is yet another steroid that is widely used in weightlifting circles as a strength and power enhancement drug. Those who have taken Dianabol claim that it makes one have a Herculean feeling’ because of its ability to increase strength and power significantly.
The drug can enlarge body mass and strength by the fourth cycle that pushes many weightlifters to opt for it as their preferred steroid. But, just like any other steroid, it has negative side effects that are worth mentioning including high blood pressure, an increase in the amount of cholesterol in the body, and an increased likelihood of heart disease.
Those mentioned above synthetic male hormone is used by weightlifters to build muscles and body mass. The hormone is present in different supplements aimed at reducing weight and boosting the ability to build stronger muscles.
The Food Drug and Administration assert that it’s not safe for consumption because of its severe side effects. Some of the side effects include: increased blood pressure, heart attack, shortness of breath, neurological problems, narrowed blood vessels, and uneven heartbeat.
Of great importance still, the steroids that weightlifters take can be categorized according to the way they are taken.
Oral forms include such steroids like Fluoxymesterone, Methyltestosterone, Oxandrolone, Stanozolol, Mibolerone, and Mesterolone. Steroids that are normally injected into the blood of its users include Methenolone enanthate, Nandrolone phenpropionate, Testosterone enanthate, Trenbolone acetate, and Boldenone undecylenate.
It’s without a doubt that different steroids interact with the body differently and produce different outcomes depending on their chemical components.
How Steroids Are Taken
Indeed, steroids use has become common to many people, especially among athletes and weightlifters who wish to boost their performance and increase the mass of their muscles. Majorly, there are three ways through which people take steroids. They can take them through the mouth, injected into their muscles, or apply on the skin.
Weightlifters use any of these methods to ensure that they have their desired dosages of steroids into their system. Compared to doses that doctors prescribe to treat particular medical conditions, those who abuse these substances take increased amounts ranging from 10 to even 100 times more.
Such levels of intake fall into the category of abuse, bearing in mind that the reasons why weightlifters take steroids to fall into the illegal use category. There are various patterns that those who take steroids to build muscles and increase their performance adopt to achieve their goals. They are discussed in detail below:
Cycling refers to the consumption of multiple doses for a particular period, stopping the intake for a while then resuming the intake.
This refers to the pattern whereby people take more than one steroid at a time. Those who do stacking hold the belief that once they take more than one type of steroids at a time, they will increase their effectiveness, thus expecting better outcomes. Olympic weightlifters who adopt the stacking pattern belief that by taking two or more types of steroids at once will make them increase their muscle mass and change their body shape faster.
This pattern refers to the combination of both cycling and stacking. This pattern of steroid use involves a gradual increase of doses from a slow frequency to a higher one and then decreasing it to level zero. Most abusers of steroids are known to pyramid their pattern of doses in 6-12 weeks. The weeks are divided into two cycles. In the first cycle, consumption of low to higher doses of steroid drugs takes place. In the second cycle, they begin to decrease the intake of steroids.
This pattern involves substituting or alternating steroids to avoid tolerance.
Athletes and weightlifters use these patterns of steroid intake to maximize the effectiveness of their use and also to avoid the effects that come with the consumption of the same. However, there is no scientific evidence that supports the effectiveness of these patterns in reducing the harmful consequences of using steroids as performance enhancement drugs.
Actually, due to the illegal nature of steroid consumption among Olympic weightlifting athletes, those who abuse these drugs devise ways of timing their injections so that they avoid detection by the relevant testing authorities.
At the back of their minds, the pattern they adopt in their intake of the synthetic hormones acts as a way of allowing the drug to clear out of their system before they go through a testing exercise.
In the same vein, some take masking drugs to hide the steroids already in their body system. Nevertheless, the bottom line is that the intake of these drugs among Olympic weightlifters is illegal, if not prescribed by medical professionals. Thus, upon the realization that they are present in the system of athletes, this can land them into serious problems.
How Many Weightlifters Use Steroids?
The use of steroids among weightlifters can’t be hidden. There is massive steroid use among athlete weightlifters and non-athlete weightlifters. A study published in the journal of Addiction and Health found out that weightlifters widely use steroids to enhance their performance and increase their strength.
Out of the 202 weightlifting participants in the study, 18.6% of them admitted having used steroids to boost the capacity to build muscles and increase their athletic performance. What does this portray?
It’s enough evidence that the trend of performance-enhancing drugs among athlete Olympic weightlifters is not a rare occurrence, but a phenomenon that has been in existence for a long time. The study further asserts that there is evidence of anabolic steroid use among both athlete and non-athlete weightlifters in the past four decades.
The use of strength and performance enhancement drugs in the weightlifting realm has attracted widespread criticism and controversy over the years.
The sport of weightlifting has, for a long time, been experiencing a series of challenges because of the involvement of top weightlifters in the misuse of steroids. The International Olympic Committee continues to be vigilant and extra careful because of the increasing number of cases of Olympic weightlifters using drugs to enhance their performance.
Since the use of anabolic steroids gives users an unfair advantage over their competitors, the International Olympic Committee considers them illegal. This ban of steroids use by the sport’s governing body is compounded by the fact that they are not allowed for consumption under medical standards.
In spite of the drugs being banned by the relevant authority in the weightlifting world, many weightlifters continue to use it because of the benefits’ they extract from it. Physical appearance, large muscles, increased power and strength, and boosted performance among Olympic weightlifters lures them to continue risking not only their quality of health, but also their reputations as athletes.
Some top weightlifters have been found guilty of using steroids and faced punishments as a result. For example, after realizing that there were alarming statistics of top Olympic weightlifting athletes abusing steroids to enhance their performance in the sport, the International Olympic Committee decided to retest the samples of athletes from the 2008 and 2012 Olympics competitions.
This was informed by the need to use more effective and advanced testing methods to determine whether weightlifters were guilty of using steroids.
It was not a surprise that top athletes were found to have used these drugs to boost their competitiveness in the sport. According to Lee (2016), some of the top weightlifters who were found to have been using these illegal drugs included: Ilya Ilyin from Kazakhstani, Andrei Rybakou from Belarus, Apti Aukhadov from Russia, and Boyanka Kostova from Azerbaijan.
Based on the testing positive of the above-mentioned top weightlifters, it’s evident that there are many weightlifters using steroids to enhance their performance in the game. If the most decorated Olympic weightlifting athletes are using drugs to build power and strength, then it goes without saying that many weightlifters are doing the same.
It’s important to point out that it’s not only athlete weightlifters who are using steroids, but also non-athlete ones. Even those who go to the gym without training for any competition are trapped in the desire to transform their body appearance, build more muscle, and improve their performance.
Steroids vs. Natural
The question of which one is better between the use of steroids and natural weightlifting is gaining a lot of significance in the minds of many audiences. By now, we must acknowledge that steroids usage is not an alien phenomenon in the weightlifting sphere, especially in Olympic weightlifting.
Therefore, a discussion of taking performance enhancement drugs and not taking is worth your time. Some use steroids to enhance their ability to lift weights and realize the gains associated with it. At the same time, some weightlifters decide to go natural; they don’t use any steroids in their workouts. Which one is better between the two?
According to multiple studies, steroids can build more muscles and enhance a weightlifter’s performance. The use of steroids makes weightlifters look stronger and more powerful within a short time compared to lifting weights without enhancement drugs.
For weightlifters who are looking for a quick fix, they often land into the hands of steroids. On the other hand, Olympic weightlifters who are willing to train hard without the use of steroids, they are sure to get quality outcomes, only that it will take a longer time. A critical look at this scenario shows you that time is a factor here.
While steroids fasten the process of gaining more muscles, power, and strength, natural weightlifting will take more time. Do weightlifters have the patience to stay clean’ and naturally build muscles? Indeed, this is a tricky question for many. Otherwise, there would be no cases on steroids abuse today.
The bottom line is that if you want to remain healthy as you train and work out towards the realization of your goals, you should stick to natural weightlifting. You will not have to worry about the negative effects of using steroids because no synthetic hormones are getting into your body.
On the contrary, if you want to have a quick result, steroids are the ones that will take you there. Building muscles is not an easy thing. It takes a lot of time to have a significant amount of muscle mass on your body. This can’t be gotten in a week or two unless you are using performance enhancement drugs. The setback to this is that you have to be ready for the side effects associated with it.
Looking at steroids vs. natural, at a critical angle, you will find out that both have advantages and disadvantages. Thus, it’s up to you to settle for what you deem as better between the two. So, what is better? Good health or faster development of muscles, power, and strength? Well, good health will always win the battle because of the quality of life that ensues.
Frequency of Steroid Use among Olympic Weightlifters
The tendency to increase body strength and speed has been sought for a long time. Whether it’s in weightlifters or not, people have always wanted to maintain strength and power in their bodies.
It’s interesting how people can go to extra lengths to make sure that they don’t lose their ability to perform activities of interest to them. For Olympic weightlifters, maintaining a high capacity for weightlifting performance and appearing strong and powerful is a great deal.
I am sure you have ever seen a heavily built man and probably wondered what he eats or how he has managed to maintain such a bodily appearance.
The truth is, it’s not easy to build and maintain such a body, especially within a short time. That is why there is a widespread use of steroids among Olympic weightlifters. So, what is the frequency of steroids use among Olympic weightlifters in today’s weightlifting space?
- The Reason(s) for Steroids Use
The frequency of steroids use is dependent on the reason for their consumption. In this respect, the frequency of steroids use has a huge implication on the degree of effects that weightlifters experience.
Weightlifters who frequently use steroids to enhance their performance have a higher likelihood of having severe complications and effects because of the high amount of drugs in their system. The moment Olympic weightlifters begin to take steroids, they find it difficult to stop their pattern of intake because of the goals they seek to achieve.
Moreover, there is a possibility of addiction to drugs, thus compounding the problem. The tendency to build more muscles faster and inject a massive amount of power and strength into a weightlifter’s system contributes greatly to the increased frequency of steroids use.
Given that it’s not possible to do natural weightlifting and boost one’s performance within a short time, Olympic weightlifters who lack the patience to wait opt for steroids use. This explains why there is a higher frequency of steroids abuse in Olympic weightlifters than in other categories of users.
- Means of Accessing Steroids
Of great importance still is the means through which Olympic weightlifters obtain or gain access to steroids. This has a significant impact on the frequency of use. According to a study published by the Addiction and Health Journal in 2009, most of the steroids that weightlifters use are obtained from the black market.
Out of the 202 weightlifting participants involved in the study, 81% said that they acquired steroids from the black market. Only 21% of them took steroids after prescriptions by physicians. Also, 5% of the participants cited that they got these drugs from drugstores and didn’t have any prescription.
Moreover, a significant point to note from the study is that most weightlifters take performance enhancement drugs to build muscle strength without thinking about the negative effects that might arise in the future. It’s because of this that the frequency of steroids use is high in Olympic weightlifters.
Steroids addiction is real. Olympic weightlifters are susceptible to steroids addiction because of the high frequency of intake. Though steroids don’t have the type of euphoria that other classes of drugs have, they have an addictive effect on users. Those who take high amounts of steroids have a higher likelihood of addiction compared to those who take them in minimal amounts.
The desire to improve one’s performance by building stronger muscles and power causes Olympic weightlifters to have an increased intake of the drugs. Two factors contribute greatly to the increased frequency of steroids addiction among weightlifters.
The first factor is the compulsive need to use these drugs to achieve particular results. Weightlifters who believe that they can’t make it without using steroids find it difficult to stop. They believe that they can’t build stronger muscles without using steroids. Whereas it’s possible to build stronger muscles and improve performance through natural weightlifting, some believe that it’s not possible.
As a result, they get addicted to steroids. The second factor contributing to steroids addiction is the manifestation of withdrawal symptoms. Withdrawal symptoms make it difficult for one to stop taking these drugs.
If a weightlifter stops taking steroids, withdrawal symptoms might appear and this forces him to continue taking them to minimize the symptoms. Some of the withdrawal symptoms that Olympic weightlifters taking steroids are likely to face include: depression, fatigue, loss of appetite, low sex drive, and insomnia.
Other signs of addiction include: using a lot of resources to get steroids, failure to take care of important responsibilities, continuing to use steroids even after noticing that they are detrimental, and experiencing unending problems and misunderstandings with family members and friends. Certainly, steroids addiction is a real problem that many Olympic weightlifters are facing today.
Effects of Steroids Use among Olympic Weightlifting
The effects of steroids are numerous and worth exploring. Despite the capacity to build muscles, enhance strength and power, and enhance performance among Olympic weightlifters, it’s notable to point out that the use of steroids is not the best alternative for boosting an athlete’s or a non-athlete weightlifter’s performance.
The bulky body size and improved performance output are good for Olympic weightlifters, but they don’t come without a cost.
The Drug Enforcement Administration considers these drugs to be illegal. If one is found in possession of these drugs without the prescription of a medical doctor, he or she can face legal action. There are physical, psychological, and medical problems that arise from the use of steroids. The side effects are discussed below:
- Physical Effects Of Steroids Use
It’s important to highlight that both male and female Olympic weightlifters are affected by steroids consumption. In male weightlifters, the following physical effects manifest upon a continuous intake of steroids: low sperm count, infertility, baldness, erectile dysfunction, increased risk of prostate cancer, shrunken testicles, and stomach pain.
In women’s weightlifters, the following side effects are likely to show as a result of taking steroids: facial hair growth, swelling of the clitoris, problems with menstrual flow, hair loss, acne, and loss of breasts. Both male and women weightlifters can experience fatigue, loss of appetite, and sleep problems. Remember, the more one takes these drugs, the more one gets vulnerable to the physical side effects that arise from them.
- Psychological Effects Of Steroids Use
Psychological health is very important, but weightlifters can greatly affect their psychological health as a result of steroid use. The more steroids one takes, the more his or her psychological health is put at risk. Some of the major psychological effects of taking steroids for performance enhancement is the development of aggressive behavior, paranoia, mood swings, and hallucinations, and restlessness.
- Medical Effects of Steroid Use among Olympic Weightlifters
Steroids are extremely dangerous if users misuse them. Olympic weightlifters are highly vulnerable to steroid abuse because they take them in high amounts. The reason they take the synthetic hormones in higher-than-normal doses is because of their need to accelerate the manifestation of strength, power, and increased performance.
The belief among many weightlifters is that if they take a lot of steroids and in a particular pattern, they increase their prospects of realizing their goals.
However, this does not come without medical risks, especially if taken in large doses. One of the medical effects of steroid use is the likelihood of developing heart diseases and other cardiac conditions. Weightlifters who do massive resistance training and take steroids to increase their risk of heart disease.
Moreover, the consumption of steroids can lead to the damaging and dysfunction of the liver. Additionally, the sharing of needles when using injection-form steroids can lead to blood-borne diseases like HIV and hepatitis. Also, Olympic weightlifters are at risk of kidney failure.
Blood cholesterol and high blood pressure are other medical effects that affect Olympic weightlifters. Increased blood cholesterol raises the risk of stroke. The frequency and amount of steroid intake among Olympic weightlifters have a significant effect on the effects that ensue. Weightlifters who tend overdosing steroids are susceptible to the effects mentioned above.
Olympic weightlifting and steroids use have continued to be a hot topic of discussion for years. Historically, the question of steroids use in weightlifting has been evolving, and attracting different views from different quarters. Some support the use of the synthetic hormones because of the benefits thereof but, at the same time, some believe that they are harmful to the body.
Again, when it comes to the sport of weightlifting, steroids are believed to give those who take them an unfair advantage over those who choose to remain natural. It’s because of these mixed reactions and views that the question of steroids use among Olympic weightlifters has become a big topic of interest. What comes out quite clearly is that steroids use is not an unusual trend. It’s been there for a long time now.
Even after the setting up of legal statutes against their use, weightlifters have not stopped using them. The need to enhance performance and build stronger muscles as well as improving physical appearances has contributed towards the over-reliance on steroids among weightlifters. Despite the obvious dangers of steroids use, weightlifters are overlooking them for the sake of their desires.
To them, as long as they can appear the way they desire, everything else will take care of itself. Based on the thoughts and knowledge brought out in this article, it’s evident that there is a need for more awareness and in-depth comprehension of steroids use among Olympic weightlifters.
How to tell if someone is taking steroids
You can tell if someone is taking steroids by observing the physical and psychological changes that begin to manifest with time.
How do steroids build stronger muscles?
When steroids get into the body, they break down into molecules that enter into the body’s cells and start to create the chemical environment for the building of stronger muscles.
Can steroids be safe for Olympic weightlifters?
Steroids can only be safe when prescribed by a doctor, but any other consumption for a different reason can be detrimental to weightlifters.
Please remember, in order to keep and maintain your good health, definitely you should stay far away from steroid usage.
Lee, L (2016). Steroids in Weightlifting. Penn State University.
National Institute of Drug Abuse. (2019). What Are Anabolic Steroids? National Institute of Drug Abuse.
National Institute of Drug Abuse. (2019). What Is the History of Anabolic Steroid Use? National Institute of Drug Abuse.
Sepehri, G., Mousavi Fard, M., & Sepehri, E. (2009). Frequency of Anabolic Steroids Abuse in Bodybuilder Athletes in Kerman City.
WebMD (2019). Anabolic Steroids. WebMD.
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